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Infectious Diseases

Principles and management of infection | Principles of evaluation of a patient with persistent fever despite antimicrobial therapy.|Principles of immunisation | Principles of antibiotic prophylaxis | The mechanisms of disease and host responses in infection | Infection in special hosts: intensive care | surgical | orthopaedic | obstetric/gynaecological | infections associated with common reasons for immunocompromise, diabetes | alcohol abuse | chronic liver disease | old age | steroid treatment | neutropenic individuals | solid organ transplant recipients | acute infectious emergencies| septicemia | meningitis | falciparum malaria | common community-acquired infection :LRTI | UTI | skin and soft tissue infection | infective arthritis | enteritis | hepatitis | biliary tract infection | endocarditis | tuberculosis | clinical illness produced by bacterial | protozoal | helminthic | viral | fungal pathogens | antimicrobial agents | hospital-acquired infection | infection control in the community | infection control in hospital and notification of infectious diseases | nosocomial infections | sexual transmission | altered immune states | occupational and geographical settings | acutely ill, febrile travellers and patients from overseas | PUO |HIV |Laboratory results| STDs : urethral discharge |vaginal discharge | cystitis | genital ulcer | proctitis | epididymitis | prostatitis | reactive arthritis | chlamydial and non specific genital infection | gonorrhoea | bacterial vaginosis | candidiasis | trichomoniasis | syphilis |anogenital herpes simplex infection | anogential warts | Hepatitis B | scabies| pediculosis |Sexual health

  • Principles and management of infection: clinical assessment of the febrile patient; the use of simple microbiological investigations; initiation of appropriate empiric and directed antimicrobial therapy. top

    exam questions


    Drug Therapy: Management of Sepsis Russell J. A.
    N Engl J Med 2006; 355:1699-1713, Oct 19, 2006. Review Articles

  • Principles of evaluation of a patient with persistent fever despite antimicrobial therapy. top

  • Principles of immunisation. top

  • Principles of antibiotic prophylaxis.

Exam questions

2005 paper two question 7 Antibiotic prophylaxis


Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotics

  • The mechanisms of disease and host responses in infection.
  • Infection in special hosts:
    • infections in intensive care;
    • surgical,

    exam questions

    2004 paper two question 23 - Splenectomy


    • .orthopaedic,
    • obstetric/gynaecological infection;
  • infections associated with common reasons for immunocompromise, such as
    • diabetes, alcohol abuse, chronic liver disease, old age, steroid treatment; neutropenic individuals; solid organ transplant recipients.
  • exam questions

    2005 paper two question 31 ESRD and haemodialysis general suppression of immune system due to ureamia. If initial attempts at hep b immunisation are inadequate appropriate to Immunise with up to 3 further doses of hepatitis B vaccine

    2005 paper two question 35 In immunocompormised host prophylactic anti-viral therapy. is indicated in those at risk of reactivation of hep b


    Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetic Foot Infections Benjamin A. Lipsky, Anthony R. Berendt, H. Gunner Deery, John M. Embil, Warren S. Joseph, Adolf W. Karchmer, Jack L. LeFrock, Daniel P. Lew, Jon T. Mader, Carl Norden, and James S. Tan Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004;39:885-910

  • Recognition and immediate management of acute infectious emergencies, including

exam questions

discussed in 2004 paper two question 67 - answer is dengue fever


Controversies and Misconceptions in Malaria Chemoprophylaxis for Travelers
Lin H. Chen; Mary E. Wilson; Patricia Schlagenhauf
JAMA. 2007;297:2251-2263.

Treatment of Malaria in the United States: A Systematic Review
Kevin S. Griffith; Linda S. Lewis; Sonja Mali; Monica E. Parise
JAMA. 2007;297:2264-2277.

  • Recognition and management of common community-acquired infection such as
  • exam questions

    2002 paper two question 84

    2004 paper two question 83 treatment of VRE


    • Principles of infection control in the community, including epidemiology; transmission and prevention of common infections which threaten a community (e.g. diarrhoeal illness, tuberculosis, meningococcal meningitis).

    exam questions

    2002 paper two question 22 exposure to measles

    2002 paper two question 34pregnant woman exposed to chicken pox / varicella zoster virus

    2004 paper two question 57


    Prevention of Meningococcal Disease Gardner P.
    N Engl J Med 2006; 355:1466-1473, Oct 5, 2006. Clinical Practice

    Current Concepts: Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis in Adults van de Beek D., de Gans J., Tunkel A. R., Wijdicks E. F.M.
    N Engl J Med 2006; 354:44-53, Jan 5, 2006. Review Articles

    • Simple principles of infection control in hospital and notification of infectious diseases.


    Exam Question

    2004 paper one question 4 - Parvovirus in hospital setting

    2004 paper two question 99 Management of a needlestick injury

    • Knowledge of infections from a variety of settings (e.g.
      • nosocomial,
      • sexual transmission,
      • altered immune states,

      Exam Questions

      2003 paper two question 68 Prolonged granulocytopenia and risk of fungal infection


      occupational and geographical settings).

    • Exam questions

      2003 paper two question 12 - Legionnaires Disease

      2003 paper two question 67 - Q fever in a dairy farmer presenting with febrile illness / menigism

      2005 paper two question 26 - Forestery worker with tick bite - Rickettsial infection

      2005 paper two question 50 mycobacterial or fungal infection as a differential in a Subacute or chronic monoarthritis with risk factors in this question an oyster farmer


      natural history and pathophysiology of Q fever Raoult et al Lancet infectious diseases 2005:5 pp219-226

    • Evaluation of acutely ill, febrile travellers and patients from overseas.

    exam questions

    2003 paper two question 84 Ascaris lumbricoides

    2003 paper two question 27 Entamoeba histolytica

    2004 paper one question 66 - diarhoea in the returned traveller

    2004 paper two question 67 - answer is dengue fever

    2005 paper one question 69 diarrhoea enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    2005 paper two question 58 - answer is dengue fever

    2005 paper two question 87 - answer is typhoid


    • An approach to investigation of pyrexia of unknown origin.
    • Diagnosis, evaluation and management of acute illness in HIV-infected individuals: recognition, counselling and testing; antiretroviral therapy; management of major complications and prophylaxis.

    exam questions

    2002 paper one question 47 and brain lesion

    2002 paper two question 9 Renal Colic an unrelated condition in a man with HIV to test knowledge of everything HIV repeated 2003 paper two question 66 but answered so beautifully and concisely by Jo-An that I have ignored it

    2002 paper two question 38HIV and neurological presentation - Ddx delerium; demential; psyc; meningism

    2004 paper one question 21 HIV transmission during pregnancy and childbirth

    2004 paper two question 76 HIV treatment NRTI


    Australian Commentary to the USA Department of Health and Human Services Antiretroviral Guidelines

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
    HIV/AIDS clinical guidelines

    Clinical review Antiretroviral treatment of HIV infected adults
    Steven G Deeks BMJ 2006; 332: 1489

    Practice Pregnancy Plus: HIV and Pregnancy Glenda E Gray, James A McIntyre
    BMJ 2007: 334:950-53

    Review Article Current Concepts NEJM Volume 356: 2073 - 2081 May 17,2007 number 20
    An HIV Vaccine — Evolving Concepts

    Margaret I. Johnston, Ph.D., and Anthony S. Fauci, M.D.

    Human immunodeficiency virus-associated peripheral neuropathies.
     Ferrari, S, Vento, S, Monaco, S, et al.
    Mayo Clin Proc 2006; 81:213.

    • Basic interpretation of laboratory results, (e.g. culture results, antibiotic susceptibilities and antibiotic levels).
    • Issues related to genitourinary medicine:
      • Management of common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); the spread and control of STDs: risk behaviour groups; sexual health education
      • Aetiology and investigations for the management of:
        • urethral discharge,
        • vaginal discharge,

        exam questions


        Acute Vulvovaginitis Eckert L. O.
        N Engl J Med 2006; 355:1244-1252, Sep 21, 2006. Clinical Practice

        • cystitis,
        • genital ulcer,
        • proctitis,
        • epididymitis,
        • prostatitis, and
        • reactive arthritis
      • Knowledge of the common conditions:
        • chlamydial and non specific genital infection,
        • gonorrhoea,
        • bacterial vaginosis,
        • candidiasis,
        • trichomoniasis,
        • syphilis (including interpretation of serological tests),

        exam questions

        2002 paper two question 99


        Clinical review Syphilis
        Patrick French BMJ 2007; 334: 143-147.


        • first and recurrent episodes of anogenital herpes simplex infection,
        • anogential warts,

        exam questions

        2005 paper one question 3 - HPV


        • Hepatitis B,
        • scabies and .

        exam questions


        Scabies Chosidow O.
        N Engl J Med 2006; 354:1718-1727, Apr 20, 2006. Clinical Practice

        • pediculosis
      • Sexual health/health promotion, including safe sex and condom use.